Each symbol corresponds to the result obtained from an individual animal. 6. This model may constitute a better approximation to a natural allergenic sensitization, in which allergic individuals tend to be exposed to low allergen doses, independently of the entry route, than the so far published experimental murine models, that use higher BtE doses [[14–16] and ]. Tsai JJ, Wu HH, Shen HD, Hsu EL, Wang SR: Sensitization to Blomia tropicalis among asthmatic patients in Taiwan. However, in humans, most cases of asthma are due to aeroallergens, and OVA-induced asthma is far from being a common event. It is abbreviated Blot by the World Health Organization. Health issues Allergies . de Guia RM, Echavez MDJ, Gaw ELC, Gomez MRR, Lopez KAJ, Mendoza RCM , Rapsing JMC, Retreta DP, Tubog CMB, Ventolero MH, Yao CL, Ramos JDA. TB conducted the majority of the experiments involving different mouse strains, the OVA × BtE comparison experiments and wrote the first manuscript draft. A/J mice were also sensitized with a lower dose of BtE. Serum anti-OVA or anti-BtE IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were measured using OVA- or BtE-coated microtitre plates and biotin-conjugated anti-mouse IgG1 or anti-mouse IgG2a, respectively (Pharmingen, St. Diego, CA, USA), in conjunction with streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase, H2O2 and orthophenylenodiamine (Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA). VMGS, TM and PRSO helped in the experiments on different mouse strains. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001. Briefly, the BALF was incubated with an erythrocyte-lysing buffer, consisting of 0.15 M NH4Cl, 1 mM KHCO3 and 0.1 mM EDTA, pH 7.4, and centrifuged. Keller AC, Mucida D, Gomes E, Faquim-Mauro E, Faria AMC, Rodriguez D, Russo M: Hierarchial suppression of asthma-like responses by mucosal tolerance. Animals sensitized and challenged with BtE showed higher levels of total cells and eosinophils in the BALF than control mice (p < 0.001, Figure 2A, and p < 0.01, Figure 2B; Tukey's test). Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2002;20(4):217-21 . IFN-γ and IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 concentration measurements were assayed in commercial ELISA kits according to manufacturer's instructions (Pharmingen, St. Diego, CA, USA). (A) Total leukocyte numbers in BALF. Chapman MD, Smith AM, Vailes LD, Arruda LK: Defined epitopes: in vivo and in vitro studies using recombinant allergens. Mite amylase from Blomia tropicalis (Blo t 4): differential allergenicity linked to geographical regions. As a second objective of the present work, mice of the best-responder strain were immunized with relatively low doses of BtE aiming at obtaining a low allergen-dose, short term murine model of respiratory allergy to B. tropicalis that reproduced many immunological and pathological features of the human disease. Reitor Miguel Calmon, Sem n°. Cite this article. No differences in numbers of macrophage, lymphocyte and neutrophils in the BALF were observed among the mice of all four strains (p > 0.05, ANOVA; data not shown). Yu P, Kosco-Vilbois M, Richards M, Köhler G, Lamers MC: Negative feedback regulation of IgE synthesis by murine CD23. Despite the bulk of work done in humans on mite-specific allergy, data on allergic responses to B. tropicalis antigens in murine models are scarce [14–16]. Total IgE was detected using anti-mouse IgE-coated microtitre plates and biotin-conjugated anti-mouse IgE (UNLB Southern Biotechnology Associates, Inc., Birmingham, AL, USA), in conjunction with streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase, H2O2 and orthophenylenodiamine. ATC L and CAF carried out the experiments on low dose of BtE. Article (A) Total IgE. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0. Carvalho AF, Fusaro AE, Oliveira CR, Brito CA, Duarte AJ, Sato MN: Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus mites evoke distinct patterns of airway cellular influx in type I hypersensitivity murine model. Article In Europe, detectable Der p 1 or Der f 1 allergen was found in 68% of surveyed homes. Blomia tropicalis, a Storage mite, was earlier found predominantly in agricultural environments but is now being recognised as an important contributor to the allergen content in house dust in indoor urban dwellings (1). . Nature 1994,369(6483):753–6. Immunization of A/J mice with BtE induced a more intense airway eosinophil influx, higher levels of total IgE, similar airway hyperreactivity to methacholine but less intense mucous production, and lower levels of specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies than sensitization with OVA. The differences in IgE titers in BtE-sensitized and challenged mice in the four studied mouse strains were not statistically significant (p > 0.05; ANOVA), although A/J mice showed the highest titers, followed by the CBA/J, C57Bl/6 and BALB/c mice. As an international journal, DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences considers outstanding studies from basic research to clinical investigations as original articles, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, general reviews, mini-reviews, short communications, and editorials from the global scientific community. Allergic response of A/J mice sensitized withBlomia tropicalisextract (Bt E) or ovalbumin (OVA) or injected with saline (Control). Experimental data indicate that inbred mouse strains differ in their ability to mount an allergen-induced asthmatic response [17, 18]. (D) Degree of airway responsiveness, as shown by the area under the curve (AUC) of the response to methacholine × time. After 48 hours, the rats received 2 mg of BtE in the tail vein, diluted in 0.5 mL of saline containing 0.5 mg/mL of Evans blue (Sigma Chemical Co, St. Louis, MO, USA). Blomia tropicalis van Bronswijk, de Cock & Oshim This mite is common in warmer regions and is mainly regarded as a house dust mites that can cause allergies. El este așa de mic, încât poate fi transportat de particulele de praf ce plutesc în aer sau de mici curenți de aer. PubMed Google Scholar. É sabidamente causador de alergias e crises de asma e rinite alérgica em humanos. J Clin Immunol 2004,24(5):533–41. JCI 2006,116(2):306–8. By using this website, you agree to our Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2003,285(1):L32–42. (F) IL-13 concentration in BALF. Strath M, Warren DJ, Sanderson CJ: Detection of eosinophils using an eosinophil peroxidase assay. Google Scholar. The EPO activity present in BALF was determined by means of the colorimetric assay that was described by Strath et al. tropicalisextract (Bt E) on the development of experimental respiratory allergy in A/J mice. Conventional models of allergic asthma rely on the sensitization of experimental animals to ovalbumin (OVA). MR contributed in planning the experiments and reviewing the manuscript. As a global leader in allergy and autoimmune disease diagnostics, we are committed to providing accurate, clinically relevant testing solutions to aid in the proper disease diagnosis and patient management. Ácaro é a designação comum dada aos animais pertencentes à subclasse Acari da classe Arachnida (os aracnídeos).A palavra acari deriva do grego akares, 'pequeno'.A maioria dos adultos mede entre 0,25 e 0,75 mm de comprimento, embora existam espécies ainda menores. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2003,90(6):664–8. Groups of mice of four different syngeneic strains were sensitized subcutaneously with 100 μg of BtE on days 0 and 7 and challenged four times intranasally, at days 8, 10, 12, and 14, with 10 μg of BtE. J Clin Immunol 2010. IL-13 production was increased in A/J and C57Bl/6 sensitized mice in comparison with the corresponding control mice (p < 0.05, Tukey's test; Figure 1F). The amount BtE used in the experiments was standardized by measuring its content in B. tropicalis Blo t 5 allergen, measured by a commercially available capture ELISA kit (INDOOR Biotechnologies, Charlottesville, VI, USA). (E) IgE anti-Bt antibody serum titers as determined by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, ANOVA. EPO activity in BALF was also higher in BtE-sensitized than in OVA-sensitized and control mice (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively; Tukey's test; Figure 2C). Airway responsiveness to increasing doses of inhaled methacholine (3, 6, 12 and 25 mg/mL) in conscious unrestrained mice was determined using a single-chamber, whole-body plethysmograph (Buxco Electronics Inc., Wilmington, NC, USA), as previously described . The BALF supernatants were stored at -70°C until used. The production of IL-4 in BtE-sensitized and challenged mice was higher in A/J when compared with the other studied mouse strains (Tukey's test, p < 0.05; Figure 1E); it was followed by the production in CBA/J mice (p < 0.01, Tukey's test). Although a mouse model for B. tropicalis extract (BtE)-induced asthma has been described, no study comparing different mouse strains in this asthma model has been reported. This finding corroborated the work of Takeda and collaborators , who found an increase of total IgE in BtE- and cholera toxin- sensitized mice. EGFR and STAT6 signaling were not investigated in the present study, but we found increased IL-13 levels, in relation to saline-treated controls, in BtE-sensitized A/J mice. The protein content of the aqueous extract was determined by the Folin reagent method, described by Lowry and collaborators , and was subsequently stored at -70°C until use. Cheong N, Siew CS, Ramos JDA, Kuo IC, Prasanna K, Lee BW, Chua KY. Tissues sections of 5-μm were then stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) for the evaluation of mucus production. A/J mice, that were the best responders to BtE sensitization, were used to compare the B. tropicalis-specific asthma experimental model with the conventional experimental model of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific asthma. de Brito CA, Fusaro AE, Victor JR, Rigato PO, Goldoni AG, Muniz BP, Duarte AJS, Sato MN, Bruno : CpG-Induced Th1-Type Response in the Downmodulation of Early Development of Allergy and Inhibition of B7 Expression on T Cells of Newborn Mice. Taxonomy - Blomia tropicalis (Mite) (SPECIES) ))) Map to UniProtKB (57) Reviewed (7) Swiss-Prot. Hum Genet 2004,115(4):295–301. The rats were painlessly killed 30 min later, and the reciprocal of the highest serum dilution to produce a blue spot with more than 5 mm of diameter was considered the PCA titer. The relevance and reproducibility of experimental animal models of allergy depends on the genetic background of the animal, the molecular composition of the allergen and the experimental protocol. Fernandes-Caldas E, Puerta L, Mercado D, Lockey RF: Mite fauna, Der p I, Der f I and Blomia tropicalis allergen levels in a tropical environment. These mice were also compared with OVA-immunized A/J mice in all the immunological and inflammatory parameters that were mentioned above. Arch Environ Health 1997;52(3):208-12 Trakultivakorn M, Nuglor T. Sensitization to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Blomia tropicalis extracts and recombinant mite allergens in atopic Thai patients. Baqueiro, T., Russo, M., Silva, V.M. In order to verify differences among more than two mouse groups, the results were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA test and the Tukey's post test. Detectable dust mite allergen was found in the beds of about 84% of surveyed United States homes. State of the art Sensitization to this mite is very common in South America and Southeast Asia. Nat Immunol 2000,1(3):221–6. This work had two objectives. (B) Differential leukocyte numbers in BALF. Whitehead GS, Walker JK, Berman KG, Foster WM, Schwartz DA: Allergen-induced airway disease is mouse strain dependent. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997,155(1):343–50. (A) Total cell count in the BALF. Sarpong SB, Zhang LY, Kleeberger SR: A novel mouse model of experimental asthma. PBS containing 1% of bovine serum albumin. … Animal models that mimic the immunological and pulmonary inflammation features observed in human asthma are important tools to dissect the basic cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the initiation and control of allergy . Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1998,115(2):144–9. Eosinophils were the main cellular type, followed by neutrophils, found in the BALF of mice of the BtE-sensitized group, and macrophages were found in larger numbers in the saline control group (Figure 5B; p < 0.001 for differences in eosinophil counts between BtE-sensitized and control group; Student's t test). Bulimic definition, pertaining to, resembling, or affected by bulimia. Storage mites can also adapt their feeding to house dust. IgE antibody serum levels were estimated by PCA reaction, as described by Mota and Wong . Our mission is to enable our customers to make the world healthier, cleaner, and safer. Following centrifugation (400 g, 5 min, 4°C), supernatants of the BALF were collected and stored at -70°C for subsequent measurement of cytokine content and the pellets were used for the measurement of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activity. Immune response of BALB/c, C57Bl/6, CBA/J and A/J mice sensitized withBlomia tropicalisextract (closed symbols) or injected with saline (open symbols). Allergens derived from this mite cause allergic reactions, including asthma and atopy. Google Scholar. OVA-sensitized mice also showed increased total cell (p < 0.05; Figure 2A; Tukey's test) and eosinophil counts (p < 0.05; Figure 2B; Tukey's test) in the BALF than the corresponding control, saline-treated animals. The circunference area of the bronchi in the PAS-stained area was electronically measured and the mucus index was determined by the following formula: Mucus index = (PAS-stained area/bronquial cross-section area) × 100. (G) Anti-B. et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999,160(4):1150–6. (B-D) Representative lung sections stained with periodic acid-Schiff. The antibody concentration was obtained by interpolation into a curve obtained by concomitantly assaying different concentrations of mouse IgE. In Europe, detectable Der p 1 or Der f 1 allergen was found in 68% of surveyed homes. This work was supported by the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology (RENORBIO programme and Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Tecnológico - CNPq), the Fundações de Amparo à Pesquisa dos Estados da Bahia e São Paulo (FAPESB and FAPESP), and the Wellcome Trust (Grant No. Total cell counts were carried out using a Neubauer chamber. Differential cell counts were performed in light microscopy, according to standard morphologic criteria, by counting, in a blinded fashion, 100 cells in cytospin preparations stained with Rosenfeld's stain. 072405/Z/03/Z). Thus, sensitization to B. tropicalis allergens is considered an independent and important cause of allergy [4, 8]. Thus, it appears that alum is required to achieve fully polarized Th2 responses to BtE. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2004,46(1):1–8. For instance, antibodies from allergic patients against the main B. tropicalis allergens (proteins of 14.3 and 27.3 kDa) do not inhibit the binding of anti-D. pteronyssinus antibodies to D. pteronyssinus antigens [4, 9, 11]. BtE-sensitized and challenged BALB/c or C57Bl/6 mice produced low amounts of IL-4, which were similar to those produced by their saline-treated control groups (p > 0.05, Tukey's test; Figure 1E). There is evidence that allergens from B. tropicalis are distinct from, and bear only low to moderate cross-reactivity to allergens from Dermatophagoides sp. Correspondence to Background The dust mite Blomia tropicalis is an important source of aeroallergens in tropical areas. P > 0.05 is not represented. It is described, herein, the development of a short-term protocol using B. tropicalis extract. Blomia tropicalis allergens are the most important mite allergens in tropical regions. After the observation that A/J was the best mouse strain for BtE-induced asthma, we immunized these mice with a low-dose (10 μg per injection) of BtE instead of the 100 μg dose per injection used in the previous experiments. The washings were carried out until no food residues could be seen under microscopy. It is an in vitro quantitative assay that is intended to be used in conjunction with other clinical information to aid in the diagnosis of allergic diseases. B. tropicalis is a storage mite, which is increasingly linked to allergy. Since A/J mice had more intense allergic responses, we selected this strain to make a comparison between the BtE-induced asthma model with the classical OVA-induced asthma model. Geographical distribution See common geographical background to mites in our Scientific Documents (link to the right). Blomia tropicalis is significantly present in (sub)tropical geographic regions worldwide. Karp CL, Grupe A, Schadt E, Ewart SL, Keane-Moore M, Cuomo PJ, KöhI J, Wahl L, Kuperman D, Germer S, Aud D, Peltz G, Wills-Karp M: Identification of complement factor 5 as a susceptibility locus for experimental allergic asthma. Article Entry date: September 24, 2002 12:00 +1GMT: Last update: July 24, 2019 20:03 +1GMT: Allergome Code: 152 J Allergy Clin Immunol 1987,80(6):755–75. A quantitative digital morphometric analysis was performed using the application program Metamorph 6.0 (Universal Images Corp. Downingtown, PA, USA). Google Scholar. In addition, groups of A/J mice were injected with 100 μg of OVA (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) adsorbed to alum and challenged with 50 μL of saline containing 10 μg of OVA, as described above for the BtE. A/J mice were also considered the best responders to Dermatophagoides sp allergens among four studied strains . Blomia tropicalis, a Storage mite, was earlier found predominantly in agricultural environments but is now being recognised as an important contributor to the allergen … (C) Levels of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) in the BALF. Our data also indicate that results obtained with OVA sensitization cannot be extrapolated to other allergens. Sensitization with OVA (p < 0.001, Tukey's test) and BtE (p < 0.01, Tukey's test) induced AHR, as compared with control mice (Figure 2D). The second objective was to investigate whether the best responder mouse strain could be used in an experimental model of allergy employing relatively low BtE doses. Smith H: Animal models of asthma. 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