The Gnostic belief was widespread within Christianity until the proto-orthodox Christian communities expelled the group in the second and third centuries (AD). In time it will turn around to return to the One (epistrophe), retracing its steps through spiritual knowledge and contemplation. , According to Turner, Sethianism was influenced by Christianity and Middle Platonism, and originated in the second century as a fusion of a Jewish baptizing group of possibly priestly lineage, the so-called Barbeloites, named after Barbelo, the first emanation of the Highest God, and a group of Biblical exegetes, the Sethites, the "seed of Seth". In most Gnostic systems, the sufficient cause of salvation is this "knowledge of" ("acquaintance with") the divine.  The Samaritan leaders were viewed as "the embodiment of God's power, spirit, or wisdom, and as the redeemer and revealer of 'true knowledge'". The Gospel of Philip is one of the Gnostic Gospels, a text of New Testament apocrypha, dated to around the 3rd century but lost in medieval times until rediscovered by accident, buried with other texts near Nag Hammadi in Egypt, in 1945.. Pages in category "Gnostic Gospels" The following 22 pages are in this category, out of 22 total. [note 26] Karen L. King notes that "Thomasine Gnosticism" as a separate category is being criticised, and may "not stand the test of scholarly scrutiny". Here is a partial list of the Gnostic Gospels, along with an approximate date during which each was composed: 1. Jump to navigation Jump to search. The Cathars (Cathari, Albigenses or Albigensians) were also accused by their enemies of the traits of Gnosticism; though whether or not the Cathari possessed direct historical influence from ancient Gnosticism is disputed. It does not appear in ancient sources at all", Pearson: "As Bentley Layton points out, the term Gnosticism was first coined by, This occurs in the context of Irenaeus' work. Mary Magdalene is respected as a Gnostic leader, and is considered superior to the twelve apostles by some gnostic texts, such as the Gospel of Mary.  Basilidianism survived until the end of the 4th century as Epiphanius knew of Basilidians living in the Nile Delta. This list may not reflect recent changes (). Divine elements "fall" into the material realm, and are locked within human beings. In the end, the kingdom of light will prevail over darkness. Radical dualism, or absolute dualism, posits two co-equal divine forces, while in mitigated dualism one of the two principles is in some way inferior to the other.  The writings in these codices comprised fifty-two mostly Gnostic treatises, but they also include three works belonging to the Corpus Hermeticum and a partial translation/alteration of Plato's Republic. The Gospel of Peter (second centur…  According to April DeConick, such a change occurred when the end time did not come, and the Thomasine tradition turned toward a "new theology of mysticism" and a "theological commitment to a fully-present kingdom of heaven here and now, where their church had attained Adam and Eve's divine status before the Fall. The Quran, like Gnostic cosmology, makes a sharp distinction between this world and the afterlife.  Among the Syrian-Egyptian schools and the movements they spawned are a typically more Monist view.  According to Harnack, Gnosticism was the "acute Hellenization of Christianity. Indeed, it appears increasingly evident that many of the newly published Gnostic texts were written in a context from which Jews were not absent. The text is not closely related to the canonical gospels and is not accepted as canonical by the Christian church. Similarly, the gnostic lives in the physical world, but is not of this world. 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Gnostics are "those who are oriented toward knowledge and understanding – or perception and learning – as a particular modality for living".  Their namesake owes to their following John the Baptist and in that country, they have about five thousand followers. Significant amounts of original Mandaean Scripture, written in Mandaean Aramaic, survive in the modern era. At ages 12 and 24, Mani had visionary experiences of a "heavenly twin" of his, calling him to leave his father's sect and preach the true message of Christ. The Paulicians, an Adoptionist group which flourished between 650 and 872 in Armenia and the Eastern Themes of the Byzantine Empire, were accused by orthodox medieval sources of being Gnostic and quasi Manichaean Christian. Finally resulting in the Rediscovery of Gnosticism ] God is good in that country, they believed some of... Which refer to the apostle Thomas ( e.g., the Gnostic Gospels reflect these teachings Yaldabaoth! The teachings of the Valentinian doctrine. 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